2017-10-31

原創觀點

調研時你是不是也經常這樣犯傻-巴頓品牌設計方法談

巴頓方法談——你是不是也經常這樣犯傻?關于品牌調研的四大誤區 

前面講了一篇關于巴頓的調研方法,調研是一門偵察學和歷史學。調研的最終目的是決策參考和創意啟發,而不是決策依據。這次我們重點談談將調研的四大誤區,不正確認識調研,最后得到的全是誤會,最終誤導決策。

 
第一、調查提問的形式。

這是調研存在的最普遍的一個問題。錯誤的提問帶來錯誤的答案,帶來錯誤的決策,最終走上錯誤的路。

舉個例子,很多品牌策劃公司最樂此不疲的就是喜歡調研“消費者為什么會購買”。然后刨根問底,一定要知道“你為什么選擇購買我們的產品”。這個問題就跟我們小時候被問到“為什么要學習”一個道理,得到的答案通常都是“為中華之崛起”,“為出人頭地”,“將來有一個好事業”,可內心真正的想法是“我才不想讀書呢,都是父母逼我的”。你去問購買iPhone的顧客購買的原因,可能得到的答案是“產品好,品牌大,系統很好用……”,可他內心真正的想法是“裝逼”“標榜我的品味”“隔壁老王也在用,我不能落后”。所以不要去問顧客為什么購買,越是深究越是誤會。因為人通常不會告訴別人不利于自己的真實想法,何如得到真實想法?只能去現場,去觀察,去解讀消費行為。

再舉個我經常提的例子,很多調研問題經常問你認為以下哪個信息來源渠道最可信:

A.朋友介紹B.傳單C.互聯網廣告D.電視廣告E.導購推薦

這個問題不調研都知道,朋友介紹這個選項一定是最高的,廣告這些選項一定是最低的,那難道我們就不投廣告了?


第二、定量調查掩蓋了觀念形成的過程。

因為最終的數據是死的,而消費者的觀念形成是活的。觀點是怎么形成的,要通過溝通才能發現,這是一個活的觀念,不能變成死的數據。尤其是我們要進入到現場的“語境”。比如我們去超市買個牛奶,每個人的消費過程都不一樣:

1、有些人預先做好清單,我就是要買蒙牛的草莓味牛奶,到超市就直接去購買;

2、有些人是漫無目的地在逛,看到這個包裝很醒目,被吸引了就嘗試一下;

3、有些人聽到促銷員在現場喊免費試喝,嘗試一下不錯,就買了;

4、有些人把這款牛奶跟伊利的同款牛奶拿在手上比較來比較去,發現蒙牛的便宜2毛錢,于是就買了

……

可調研報告上的經常就是XX%的購買這款產品,把整個消費過程、消費的故事都丟了。

 

第三、很多調研忽略了普通人對問卷課題的理解,大多數的問卷設計都是錯的。

調研應該是一個頂層設計,是服務于整個企業和品牌戰略的。而現在企業通常的調研報告是怎么產生的呢?領導要研究一下市場情況,沒有假設、沒目的,對下面的執行者說“去做一下市場調研,XX天后把報告給我”。于是下面的人也就去網上找幾個問卷,然后修改一下問題,就做問卷調查了。價值又有幾何呢?調研是一個論證過程,前期是要有假設,內心是要有答案的。就像拿破侖打仗,首先心中就有戰略部署,哪里架炮,哪里埋伏,哪里投入兵力多……然后派偵察兵去論證這些結論。這也是市場調研的精髓。

 

第四、顛倒了企業的責任和消費者的責任,這就是本質的根源。

 現在大量的企業做調研通常都是問計于消費者,包括前面提到的“為什么購買”,“多少價格能接受”,“產品應該具備哪些功能”……這些都是企業的責任,當你去問消費者這些問題的時候,他的角色身份就不對了,他自然而然地將自己的身份變為決策者,得到的答案也是沒有價值的。

我們應該生產怎么樣的產品,這是企業的責任,企業家的責任,是企業應有的判斷。關于價格,消費者是永遠不知道能接受多少價格的。只有我們開出價格,并且在具體的銷售場合,他才知道自己掏不掏錢。而且不同場合愿意掏的錢不一樣,不同的購買理由也有不同的價格。

所以經常有一些很傻的問卷:

您覺得我們這里定價如何?

A.很貴 B.價格適中 C.便宜

然后調研結果A選項一定占很大比例,難道我們就降價?


以上就是調研的四大陷井,尤其是最后一條:顛倒了企業的責任和消費者的責任。這是基本所有問卷的問題根源,千萬不要問計于消費者。希望看了這篇內容后,在品牌策劃時不要再問消費者你為什么購買,在品牌設計時也不要問消費者你喜歡什么顏色。這是企業的責任,是品牌策劃設計公司的專業能力,而不是消費者的責任。

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